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Incorporating Aristotle's notion of a "prime mover" into and elsewhere, Thomas Aquinas famously formulated his version of the cosmological or "first cause" argument. According to this argument, the things which we see around us now are the products of a series of previous causes. But that series cannot go back in time forever. Thus there must be some first cause which was not itself caused by anything else. And that first uncaused cause is God. The argument can be put more formally as follows:

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Of course, the offered by Aquinas and others have largely been supplanted by contempory versions of the argument, such as the , cosmological arguments based on and , and arguments based on philosophical considerations concerning .

Counter Arguments to the attempts to use the Cosmological or Kalam Cosmological Argument

The existence of God has been doubted over the years by scholars. The proof of God’s existence has led to several arguments based on ontological, teleological and cosmological perspectives. This thesis paper discusses the existence of God based on the cosmological dimension which is generally focused on a broader pattern that tries to make an inference from certain alleged facts about the world (cosmos) to ascertain the existence of a unique being (God). Nash explains that whereas, teleological arguments are focused on the apparent order and design of the existing world, ontological arguments are based on reason alone to determine the existence of God(134).The facts presented in this paper would help us to prove the existence or non existence of a unique being called God.

How Successful is the Cosmological Argument? (20)

...INFINITE REGRESS AND THE COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT I n recent years, there has been a revival of interest in that version o f the Cosmological Proof for God's existence which argues for the n ecessity of an uncaused or first cause. The argument can be p resented as follows: I ) We know that at least some things are caused to come i nto being 2) Either whatever causes something to come into being has i tself been caused to come into being or there is somet hing that causes something to come into being which has n ot itself been caused to come into being 3) But if whatever causes something to come into being has i tself been caused to come into being, there is an infinite series of causes stretching back in time 4) But there cannot be such a series 5) Hence there is something that causes something to come i nto being which has not itself been caused to come into b eing. T h a t is, there is an uncaused cause, and this is G od. N ow the major source of disagreement between the defenders and o pponents of this argument is over whether premise (4) is true, i.e. w hether an infinite series of causes stretching back in time is possible. A n umber of fallacious objections to the possibility of an infinite series have been exposed, 1 but there remains one objection that h as not, and in the opinion of several supporters of the argument, c annot be answered. This is essentially that if there were an infinite series of causes stretching back in time, in order to......

defenders of cosmological arguments include , , , and .

The Kalam Cosmological Argument provides nothing to substantiate the claim that there is a creator.

...Examine the cosmological argument for the existence of God. The cosmological argument is an a posteriori argument which intends to prove that there is an intelligent being that exists; the being is distinct from the universe, explains the existence of the universe, and is omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent and omnibenevolent. The basic notion of cosmological arguments is that the world and everything in it is dependent on something other than itself for its existence. It explains that everything has a cause, that there must have been a first cause, and that this first cause was itself uncaused. Many philosophers have explored the cosmological argument, including Aquinas, in much depth, through his Five Ways in the Summa Theologica. Thomas Aquinas rejected the ontological argument of Anselm, saying that had it been convincing, the existence of God would be self-evident to everyone. He argued that the fact people deny God’s existence is proof enough that it is not in fact self evident. Aquinas believed from faith that God existed and he believed that the real world contained enough evidence for this; Aquinas wrote the Five Ways in order to prove his beliefs. Each ‘way’ of the Five Ways is an exercise of reason, not of faith; they are the classical exposition of natural theology. The first three of the five ways are based on the cosmological argument. The first way that Aquinas proposed to support the cosmological argument regarded the ‘unmoved mover’; he stated...

In the context of a debate, you ought to repeat Aquinas’ argument.

The Cosmological Argument is Self-contradictory - The Cosmological Argument, also known as the First Cause Argument, is one of the most important arguments for the existence of God, not only because it is one of the more convincing, but also because it is one of the most used. The thought that everything that happens must have a cause and that the first cause of everything must have been God, is widespread. The cosmological argument is the argument from the existence of the world or universe to the existence of a being that brought it into and keeps it in existence. [tags: Philosophy Religion First Cause Argument]

Free cosmological argument papers, ..

...The Cosmological Argument The Second Way: The Argument from Causation Aquinas claims that if we look around the world, we will see that things are caused to come into existence by other things. Children are caused to come into existence by their parents, who are in turn caused to some into existence by their parents, etc. We never observe anything causing itself, for this, Aquinas argues, would be absurd. However, the series of causes cannot go back infinitely. If you do not have a first cause, then there cannot be any intermediate causes, or a last. So there must be an uncaused first cause--and this we call God. The Third Way: The Argument From Contingency Contingent vs. Necessary: Before we dive into Aquinas' Third Way, it will help to get a grasp on the difference between contingent things and necessary things. A contingent thing is one that either in fact exists, but might not have, or one that does not in fact exist, but might have. For example, Alumni Hall exists, but it might not have (we can imagine that they just never built it); so Alumni Hall is a contingent thing. Unicorns, on the other hand, do not in fact exist, but it seems possible that they might have; so unicorns are contingent things. There are lots of contingent things: you, me, your parents, my parents, etc. In contrast, a necessary thing is one that in fact exists, but is also something that could not have failed to exist. In other words, it is logically impossible that a necessary being...

Thomas Aquinas' Cosmological Argument - Among the three arguments to ..

The Cosmological Argument is a posteriori argument (knowledge gained after experience) which attempts to prove that there is a rational basis for the belief in God. This argument is synthetic as it uses senses and is distinctive as it uses evidence of the universe to prove that God exists. The argument attempts to prove that God exists by evaluating the scale and nature of the cosmos. In order for this argument to succeed it has to be inductive and produce overwhelming evidence to show Gods existence. Arguments, like this one, can be interpreted in various ways so there will be different conclusions about God, in other words religious ambiguity. Furthermore most supporters of the Cosmological Argument argue that the universe could only have come into existence if it were caused by an uncaused cause. Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican friar, adapted the argument. He stated that everything must have a cause, nothing is its own cause, and a chain of causes cannot be infinite and that there must be a first cause. This first cause must be an infinite, necessary being. Aquinas’ first way is the way of motion. Aquinas uses the existence of motion of demonstrate the existence of God. He said that “Nothing can be moved from a state of potentiality to actuality, except by something in a state of actuality”. Here Aquinas uses Aristotle’s argument of the Prime Mover. The Prime Mover causes the movement of other things, in other words, it does not start off the movement by giving it some kind of push, but it is the purpose, or end, or the teleology, of the movement. Change in an object is always caused by an external movement – nothing can change itself. These movements go back in a causal chain, but Aquinas said this chain cannot be infinite so there must be something which set off this chain of movements, an unmoved mover, Prime Mover (God). Things change to fulfil their potential. If things could change themselves they would be both...